1.    The first 3 paragraphs on page 64 list some ways in which we reason. Think about your day (or yesterday). Using the terms as a guide, try to write down all the specific ways you used reasoning. For example, if you worked on some math problems for an hour or decided which sandwich to buy…perhaps you predicted the surf conditions before you headed out!

 I reason in some weird ways. I am constantly narrating my life, and encounters in my head, its kind of ridiculous. Through this narration I am constantly reasoning with my observations and opinions. For example just walking to the concession stand I am constantly judging and determining my surroundings. I see some girl get a salad, and instantly think “Well whats the point of that?” “Is she just trying to fulfill some trend of being a  girl who eats salads?” Just repetitive ridiculous shit hahah. Then I’d move on to my own personal choices and path and the reasoning behind that. “Should i do this homework assignment?” “what gain do I have? What could i be doing instead? Is my teacher going to yell and bicker if I don’t complete this?” Then based on my rational and decisions, i make a choice. That is all choices are, decisions based on information gained on yourself and the environment, and the ration you go through.

2.    Curate an article or video on cognitive computing or cognition in general that appeals to you. Perhaps you want to find something that has to do with the relationship between REASONING and other WAYS OF KNOWING (emotions, sense perception, and language). Post and comment on. Try out this resource: http://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/cognition


After checking out the awesome resource you sent us, I found this relative article on the relationship between Facebook and higher cognition amongst teens.


This article discusses that in many parents opinions Facebook is a waste of time and it completely pointless, ultimately dumbing down the person, when it actually does the opposite! Facebook users have proven to show an increase mental process amongst teens and adults. This is because the use of facebook forces us to access our memory more often enhancing that part of the brain. It makes sense constantly starting conversations, reading posts, and looking at pictures. This makes your brain an exterme multitasker.

3.    Think of a GENERALIZATION you have made or heard recently (see pg. 68). Can you describe some examples of harmful generalizations?

 I only can think of one, stereotypes. To judge a book on its cover is the worst  thing you can do. All people that live in the south are racist. When a large push for social equality came from the south. Its things like this that corrupt society. I am guily of making generalizations too though. For example every time i see a local from west side or anywhere, i instantly think they hate me because its true! hahahaha

4.    ***note: be sure you understand the term “Implication”, (located in the green box on page 70) – it’s part of the TOK essay criteria.

 Implication: a logical relation between two ideas, stated in the form “A implies B” or “If A, then B”. For any valid implication, if idea A is true, then idea B cannot be false.

5.    Make up your own variables (actual words) for P and Q in the DEDUCTIVE REASONING exercise on page 70.  (just try this out so it makes more sense) – I tried “Swedes” and “blonde”.

P is White skin…… Q is Blonde hair

–        All white skin people have blonde hair

–        All blonde hair is to white people

–        All blonde hair in on white skin people

6.    What are the 2 KEY ASSERTIONS of deductive reasoning? What is the MAJOR DISTINCTION between “Validity” and “Truth”?

 The two key assertions of deductive reasoning are Truth and Validity. The difference between the Truth and Validity is that truth is the statement that we reason about and that reasoning is validity. To make something valid, one must have reasoning, so on and so forth. 

7.    Pick up one of your textbooks OR find an article on an online newspaper. Identify its premises and its conclusion. Look for key word hints, such as those located at the top of page 73.  Are there any implicit premises (those not stated explicitly but implied)?  (***note: premises are sometimes called “assumptions”)

 Chemical warfare in Syria

·      Is the major premise of the argument true? How could one find out?

It isn’t determined whether the premise of the argument is true or false. But the answer brings such a severe consequence, that it is dangerous uncovering the validity of the premise.

·      Is the argument valid? How would you know?

The argument is a little ridiculous, and its a big assumption. There needs to be clear proof that it was the government, rather than a rebel group. Even with the most clear evidence out there. It is impossible to know who did what. 

·      Assuming that the minor premise is true , is the conclusion true? How do you know? (see page 74 for help)

The conclusion would most likely be definite attack on Syria for crimes against humanity. Well it was stated as a consequence for the premise.


8.    Construct your OWN deductive argument or “SYLLOGISM” using the template in the middle of page 73. (remember to go from general to particular…)

 Our water polo team makes a lot of goals

I play on the water polo team

I make a lot of goals

9.    Construct your OWN FALLACY, or invalid deductive argument, similar to the one on page 74-5.

 The Ocean is Blue

The Sky is Blue

The Ocean is the Sky

10. Be sure you understand what “COUNTER-ARGUMENTS” and “COUNTER-CLAIMS” are – as they are a huge part of the TOK assessments. (***if you ever get a chance, watch Red Eye http://www.foxnews.com/on-air/red-eye/index.html – it’s full of them). Remember that a strong argument is both VALID and SOUND (see page 76)


11. In your own words, how does INDUCTIVE reasoning differ from deductive reasoning? Can you provide an example of how you personally have used inductive reasoning recently? (see page 76)

 Inductive reasoning is in simple terms common sense, and encumbers the ways of survival that you were born with. Deductive reasoning has to do with facts to help you reason and make decisions. Deductive reasoning uses generalizations.

12.  In the last paragraph of page 77, the author states “Much of our knowledge about the natural sciences is based on generalizations backed by repeated observation of phenomena”. Can you provide an example of CLASSICAL induction from your own science courses (group 4)?

 In biology we learned that calories are what provide energy. We then did a lab to prove it and Dr. P proved to us that calories is what gives us energy. So the classic induction would be that calories are the source for all of our energy. 

13. Try the “random percentage” experiment discussed in the Statistics area of page 78. Type in 3 different random percentages into Google – what do you get? Try to find a statistic with a percentage via Twitter.

–        The percentage of Europe that is wilderness: 42%

–        The percentage of Africa that is wilderness: 28%

–        The percentage of North America that is wilderness: 38%

14.  Find an INFOGRAPHIC that not only offers statistics, but “tells the story” or offers correlations (see page 79). Look for great infographics on the links on my site: http://amyburvall.wix.com/infographicmania#!best-sites/c1z7m


15. Provide an example of ANALOGICAL REASONING from your own life. How likely are you to trust your own results, on a scale of 0 to 10?

 There will always be summer vacation: 4

16.  ***We might play the Crazy Captain’s game in class (Hypothetico-deductive reasoning)


17.  Curate a TED TALK (http://www.ted.com ) that highlights the use of CREATIVE REASONING (pg. 82), post and provide a brief overview. (***you might want to check out TED MED at the top)


This is a TED talk about how body language changes how we view ourselves, ultimately changing what we do in life. I thought this was awesome, definitely should watch it Ms. Burvall!

18.  Look around your bedroom OR your laptop: In what ways do you classify things? What is the method to your madness? Describe some common classifications in the AOKS (Areas of Knowledge, i.e. all your courses). Can you think of an example where technology or advances in science/ newfound “knowledge” has changed the classification system?

 In the case of my computer i classify things into two things. Productivity, and Leisure. Both are polar opposites of each other. I feel like that is the basics of organization and classification begin, separating things into two opposite categories.  I feel like the Iphone did it to me, being able to put things into folders, and giving it a title.

19. ***We will do more exercises with classification in class.


20. Pages 86-7 discuss the dangers of classification, i.e. racism, stereotypes, and other prejudices. CURATE a relatively recent ARTICLE or VIDEO  that highlights an instance of one of these issues.


Its insane that it took this long for people of color to get into politics. They are only different based on the pigment in their skin. So it blows my mind that it took so long. Its weird because it seems all these events are following the actions of one nation as if its a social acceptance thing, which it is.

21. What stereotypes, generalizations, or prejudices do you think you have?

 I think the first thing that comes to mind is loner. I dont really have a set place so i end up loneing it. So i guess it isn’t much of a stereotype hahaha. But the qualities that come with this like not enjoying socialization, are totally false. Stuff like that, but i always try to share the aloha.

22. TRY IT OUT: Take Harvard’s Race or Gender TEST: http://www.understandingprejudice.org/iat/ OR the Diet and Lifestyle or Race and Advertising TEST at http://www.understandingprejudice.org/drawline/


* follow-up reflection questions on pp.88-89 of your text

All I can say that is race and gender discrepancies are so engrained in history that is shapes our social culture today. It isn’t one of those things where we forgive and forget. Its constantly around us, yet it isn’t valid. Its like Latin, we don’t use it, but its abundant in our lifestyles. If that makes sense haha. 


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